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Oliver Rowland gets Williams Formula 1 role for 2018

Williams has appointed Oliver Rowland in a ‘young driver’ role for the 2018 Formula 1 campaign

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Mercedes F1 launch: Why the W09 is so impressive

Mercedes revealed its new W09 Formula 1 car on Thursday as it bids to secure a fifth-consecutive sweep of the drivers’ and constructors’ titles in 2018

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Jolyon Palmer to be part of BBC F1 radio coverage in 2018

Ex-Renault Formula 1 driver Jolyon Palmer will be part of the BBC’s Formula 1 radio coverage this season

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Moschino Fall 2018 Runway

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Temperatures in the Arctic Climb 45º Above Normal

In another indication of how climate change is having an impact on the polar regions of our planet, the Arctic is currently experiencing some of its warmest weather ever for this time of year. According to reports from the Cape Morris Jesup weather station in Greenland – the northernmost of its kind in the world – temperatures soared 45ºF higher than normal. And while this spike has been unusual,…

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Here's how the AR-15 became the weapon of choice for America's mass shooters — and why it's so deadly

ar-15 rifle

Parkland, Florida.

Las Vegas, Nevada. 

Sutherland Springs, Texas.

Recent deadly mass shootings in these US cities have at least one thing in common: the AR-15.

This weapon has become increasingly popular in the US, especially since the 1994 federal weapons ban expired in 2004, and has been used in many other mass shootings around the country. Not just the three listed above.

To understand how and why this has happened, we put together a historical overview of the weapon and spoke with David Chipman, a senior policy analyst at Giffords and former special agent with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives.

The National Rifle Association did not respond to our request for comment.

SEE ALSO: A 15-year-old JROTC cadet sacrificed himself to save ‘dozens’ during the Florida shooting — and thousands of people want him buried with full military honors

The AR in AR-15 stands for Armalite Rifle — not assault rifle.

In the mid-1950s, the US Army asked a gun-manufacturing company called Armalite to develop a smaller version of the AR-10 to replace the M-1 Garand, which had been widely used in World War II and the Korean War.

The result was the AR-15.

But Armalite then sold the design to Colt, which in turn began selling the weapon to Pentagon. In 1962, the US Department of Defense changed the name of the AR-15 to the M-16.

In 1963, Colt began marketing the AR-15 to the American public as a “superb hunting partner.”

While it was still legal for gun dealers to sell automatic weapons until the 1986 Firearm Owners Protection Act, which banned new automatic weapons, these first Colt AR-15s were semi-automatic weapons.

An automatic continuously fires when the trigger is held down, whereas the operator must continuously pull the trigger to repeatedly fire a semi-automatic weapon.

However, to this day, civilians can still own automatic weapons that were grandfathered in before 1986.

And, even then, the AR-15 was incredibly lethal.

It shoots a .223 Caliber or 5.56 mm round at roughly 3,300 feet per second, which is about three times the muzzle velocity of a typical Glock pistol.

The AR-15’s effective firing range is also more than 1,300 feet at the least, whereas a typical Glock’s firing range is just over 160 feet.

Chipman, the senior policy analyst at Giffords and former ATF special agent, told Business Insider that the AR-15 is so powerful that they weren’t allowed to carry it during indoor raids because the rounds travel so fast that they could penetrate a victim, then a wall, then a bystander through that room.

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Eudon Choi Fall 2018 Runway

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Video: Why We Need Quiet (and Wild) Spaces

Anyone who loves the outdoors knows how valuable and invigorating it can be to spend some time in the backcountry. This video captures the essence of that very well as we follow a young woman into the mountains where she reflects on modern life and the importance of disconnecting from time to time. Something we can all appreciate.

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Mexico took down another high-profile cartel leader, and the backlash may already have started

Mexican marines soldiers matamoros tamaulipas

  • A top Gulf cartel leader was captured at a home near the US-Mexico border early on Monday morning.
  • Less than a day later, residents in the area reported gunfire and other violent scenes.
  • The complex criminal environment in Mexico makes it hard to tell where things are going, but such disruptions in leadership have sparked violence in the past.

Mexican marines captured a top leader in the Gulf cartel in northeast Mexico on Monday, just a few weeks after a high-level member of the rival Zetas cartel was captured in Mexico City.

Jose Alfredo Cardenas, nicknamed “the Nephew” and “the Accountant,” was arrested in Matamoros early on Monday. Officials said no shots were fired in the raid that also seized two military-grade weapons, ammunition, and some cocaine and marijuana. A group of armed men reportedly fled the scene.

Mexican authorities tracked down Cardenas using wire intercepts, Mike Vigil, former chief of international operations for the US Drug Enforcement Administration, told Business Insider. Cardenas was captured along with two other men while entering a house, added Vigil, who said additional weapons and documents were also seized.

37-year-old Cardenas is the nephew of Osiel Cardenas Guillen, the Gulf cartel boss who was arrested in 2003, extradited to the US in 2007, and sentenced to 25 years in prison in 2010. The younger Cardenas became a cartel leader after Guillen’s capture, and, according to the DEA’s 2017 National Drug Threat Assessment, he is one of two main leaders in a cartel that has seen “rapid turnover in leadership.”

Mexican federal officials said that Cardenas — one of the country’s most wanted criminals — moved between Matamoros, the nearby city of Brownsville in Texas, and Mexico state in central Mexico.

Osiel Cardenas Guillen arrest Mexico Houston federal court

The Gulf cartel has fragmented, with several factions now vying for influence in Tamaulipas, the cartel’s traditional stronghold. The state is an important smuggling route for narcotics, migrants, and other illicit goods, and criminal groups there have expanded into kidnapping, extortion, resource theft, and other activities. Homicides in the state have risen each of the past three years, hitting 1,053 in 2017.

“What has happened in Tamaulipas is we have had two big groups of organized crime that have fragmented, and now we have more than 20,” Guadalupe Correa-Cabrera, a professor at George Mason University, told Business Insider at the end of January.

“It’s difficult to identify the number of cells that survive right now in the state and are still occupying or controlling different criminal activities,” Correa-Cabrera, author of “Los Zetas Inc,” said at the time. There are “different factions of the Gulf cartel and some factions of the Zetas” in other cities around the state.

gulf cartel arrest

Cardenas reportedly took control of a Gulf cartel faction in the area after the April 2017 killing of  Juan Manuel Loisa Salinas, known as “Comandante Toro,” in Reynosa, a border city west of Matamoros. Mexican government sources also identified him as the Gulf cartel boss in Matamoros.

A statement issued by the Mexican navy after Cardenas’ arrested said, “presumably he was the leader of a criminal organization in the region.”

He was reportedly competing for control of the cartel with a rival group in the nearby Mexican city of Rio Bravo.

By early Tuesday morning — less than 24 hours after Cardenas’ capture — Matamoros residents were using social media to report gun battles in several areas of the city. “Matamoros under shootouts” and “precaution” were messages circulating with video recordings of the gunfire that appeared on social media.

Some cars were reportedly left stranded after their tires punctured by spikes left on roads.

Correa-Cabrera said that while it was too early to say definitively what provoked the clashes, they did appear related to Cardenas’ arrest.

Reynosa Matamoros Tamaulipas Mexico homicides

After the mayorship was transferred from the conservative National Action Party and the center-right Institutional Revolutionary Party in late 2016, the situation in Matamoros appeared more coherent, and the Gulf cartel leader’s capture may have disrupted some kind of pact that had been agreed upon, Correa-Cabrera told Business Insider on Tuesday.

“I am not sure why they arrested Cardenas,” she added. “It is interesting. We need to wait and see.”

Violence also broke out in Reynosa in the hours after the killing of Comandante Toro in April last year. Armed gunmen shut down parts of the city with road blockades, and the federal attorney general’s office there came under fire several times. The months afterward also saw sustained, elevated violence.

However, Correa-Cabrera stressed that the criminal dynamics in Reynosa and Tamaulipas are distinct, making it hard to predict what the fallout will be.

“We are not dealing here with a pure ‘kingpin strategy effect,’ understood in the most traditional sense” as a fight between malefactors for control of the territory, Correa-Cabrera told Business Insider.

Rather, a variety of actors with overlapping and sometimes shared interests are in Reynosa, she said, including federal forces, state authorities, and factions of different criminal groups. Paramilitary groups, made up of criminal and government forces acting in concert, may also be present. (There are at least 18 regional cartel leaders operating in northeast Mexico, according to El Universal.)

Criminal elements and members of the local, municipal, and state governments in Tamaulipas have often developed symbiotic relationships. Changes in political power and shifts in cartel leadership have in some instances disrupted those ties, leading to more violence.

“The situation in Reynosa is much more complex,” Correa-Cabrera said. “The whole state is very complex.”

SEE ALSO: Brazil is taking an ‘extreme measure’ to confront crime in Rio — the first time it’s done so since the country’s dictatorship fell

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NOW WATCH: The wives of El Chapo’s henchmen reveal how they hid and spent $2 billion

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Force India to reveal 2018 F1 car in Barcelona pitlane before test

Force India will join Toro Rosso in unveiling its 2018 Formula 1 car in the Barcelona pitlane next Monday morning immediately prior to the start of testing, Autosport has learned

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